Neutrinoless double-beta decay is a proposed process where a nucleus decays simultaneously emitting two electrons and no neutrinos. In order for this to happen, the neutrino must be its own antiparticle, a Majorana particle, which implies that the neutrino gets its mass in a different way than the other fundamental particles. It also tells us that lepton number is not conserved which then provides a mechanism for neutrinos to create more matter than antimatter, one of the big mysteries of the early universe. The Winslow group is part of two international collaborations: the bolometer-based CUORE experiment and the liquid-scintillator-based KamLAND-Zen experiment. This work also includes crystal and readout development for the CUORE upgrade, CUPID, and a prototype of a directional liquid scintillator experiment, NuDot.
The axion was proposed as part of the solution to why the strong interaction does not violate CP symmetry, a mirror like symmetry that some processes conserve. This very light particle is also an excellent candidate for dark matter. It should have a very small coupling to electromagnetism. The ABRACADABRA (ABRA) experiment searches for a small magnetic field to appear in the center of a toroidal magnet due to the axion. The group demonstrated this technique with the ABRA-10cm experiment and is now working towards a larger and more sensitive experiment.